COMBIOMED NETWORK

Glossary

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[B]
Biobank: An organized collection of biological samples and their associated data that can be an important resource for studying the causes and mechanisms of multifactorial diseases, which are the most prevalent ones.

BioInformatics (classic definition): The mathematical, statistical and computing methods that aim to solve biological problems using DNA and amino acid sequences and related information (Tekaia, Institut Pasteur)

BioInformatics: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories applicable to molecular biology and areas of computer-based techniques for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets (MeSH definition)

BioInformatics (additional definition): Bioinformatics is the field of science in which biology, computer science, and information technology merge into a single discipline (National Center for Biotechnology Information)

BioInformatics and/or Computational Biology: Applications of informatics principles and methods to support basic research in such areas as genomics, proteomics, cheminformatics, systems biology, and simulation/modeling of biological systems.

Biomarker: An index that can be measured in an objective manner and that is used as an indicator of a normal or a pathological biological process or a pharmacological response to a therapeutic intervention that can be applicable to the diagnosis, prognosis, follow-up or therapeutics of a disease.

Biomedical Informatics: CBMI is the field that studies biomedical information and knowledge: their structure, acquisition, integration, management, and optimal use. The field involves multidisciplinary research in, application development for, and administrative approaches to all aspects of health care delivery, biomedicine, and public health. BMI adopts, applies, evaluates, modifies, and expands results from a variety of disciplines including Information Science, Computer Science, Library Science, Cognitive Science, Business management and Organization, Statistics and Biometrics, Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence, Operations Research, Economics, and of course, basic and clinical Health Sciences (Vanderbilt University)

Biomedical Informatics: Biomedical informatics melds the study of computer science with analyses of biomedical information and knowledge, thereby addressing specifically the interface between computer science and biomedical science (Shortliffe)

Biomedicine: The branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice 2: the branch of medical science that studies the ability of organisms to withstand environmental stress (as in space travel) (MeSH definition).
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[C]
Clinical Bioinformatics: The integration of patient genomic data to daily clinical practice through the use of bioinformatics tools.

Clinical Bioinformatics: Clinical informatics is a combination of information science, computer science, and clinical science designed to assist in the management and processing of data, information and knowledge to support the practice and delivery of clinical care (Shortliffe and Perreault)

Clinical Informatics: Clinical informatics is a combination of information science, computer science, and clinical science designed to assist in the management and processing of data, information and knowledge to support the practice and delivery of clinical care (Shortliffe and Perreault)

Clinical Genomics: Applying Genomic Technologies for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Development to Determine the Genetic Cause of High Profile Diseases.

Clinical Research and Translational Informatics: Applications of informatics principles and methods to “bench to bedside” translational research exploring genomephenome relationships, to pharmacogenomics, to drug discovery, and to the support of clinical trials.

Comparative Genomics: The availability of complete genome sequences generated both inside and outside the HGP is driving a major breakthrough in fundamental biology as scientists compare entire genomes to gain new insights into evolutionary, biochemical, genetic, metabolic, and physiological pathways (HGP)

Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories applicable to MOLECULAR BIOLOGY and areas of computer-based techniques for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets (MeSH definition)
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[D]
Drug: Substance used for the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a disease. Drugs produce quantitative changes in cellular behaviour (this is increase of decrease of the size, frequency of duration of basal activities)
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[F]
Functional Genomics: Development and application of global (genome-wide or system-wide) experimental approaches to assess gene function by making use of the information and reagents provided by structural genomics (Weizmann Institute of Science)
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[G]
Genechip: Commercial microarray manufactured by photolithographic techniques by Affymetrix. Although this is a commercial brand the name is sometimes used to refer in a generic form to genetic material microarray techniques.

Genetics: Science of inheritance and variation; it studies inheritance patterns of specific features.

Genome Epidemiology: Study of the role of genetic factors and their interaction with environmental factors in the occurrence of disease in human populations. Beskow, L. Community Genetics. 2001)

Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms. (MeSH definition)

Genomic chemistry: New discipline that uses DNA sequences as starting reference or as a final target for the development of new chemical structures with potential pharmacological activity.

Genomic Medicine: Focuses on the understanding and the analysis of disease mechanism at the level of cells and molecules, using knowledge about Human Genetics Variation to develop new diagnostics procedures, treatments and drugs that will be selectively prescribed to groups of patients, with guaranteed safety and efficacy.
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[H]
Health Care / Clinical Informatics: Applications of informatics principles and methods to direct patient care, such as advanced clinical decision support systems and multimedia electronic health records, and to the provision of informational support to health care consumers.

HTS-High Throughput Screening: High throughput screening of molecules for the determination of their pharmacological activity.
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[I]
Imaging Informatics (also known as structural informatics): Management of information from the point at which a physician orders an imaging study to the point at which an informed interpretation of the results of that study are delivered back to the physician (Society of Imaging Informatics)

Individualised healthcare: Application of genomics to identify individual predispositions to disease and to design therapies adapted to the genetic profiles of patients and that could be prescribed with guarantee of security and efficiency.
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[K]
Knowledge system: From a scienceometric point of view, a knowledge system can be defined as that informatics system that retrieves information included in data bases and transforms it in new knowledge that was not explicit in the information contained in the database but that it is generated from the information contained in them. In other words, it is an artificial learning tool, useful in technological vigilance, Science assessment and in the development of scientific research.
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[M]
Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine (MeSH definition)

Molecular Medicine: Medical research and practice focusing on the understanding of the basic molecular biology and the analysis of disease mechanisms at the level of cells and molecules and its translation into diagnosis, prevention, treatment and cure of human diseases. Effort in explaining life and disease in terms of the presence and regulation of molecular entities.
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[N]
Network: It can be a network of words (concepts), of researchers, of Institutions, etc… Networks are constituted by actors that they themselves are networks. For example, a researcher is an actor in a Network, but the researcher Him/herself can be represented by the Network of the subject he/she researches and it is present in the documents he/she publishes.

Neuroinformatics: Combining neuroscience and informatics research to develop and apply advanced tools and approaches essential for a major advancement in understanding the structure and function of the brain.

Nursing Informatics: Integrates nursing science, computer science, and information science to manage and communicate data, information, and knowledge in nursing practice (American Nurses Association)
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[P]
Pharmacogenetics: The study of how people's genetic make-up affects their response to medicines.

Pharmacogenomics: Science that examines the inherited variations in genes that dictate drug response and explores the ways these variations can be used to predict whether a patient will have a good response to a drug, a bad response to a drug, or no response at all.

Personalised healthcare: The emergence of individualised medicine as a consequence of the human genome project. As the human gene system is being unravelled, scientists can distinguish the biologic actors that cause a disease more precisely. The knowledge generated by the human genome project will single out more so-called targets in the human body. This will make it possible to develop more specific drugs and to act more pro-actively instead of the reactive medicine practised now. Also, the specific knowledge about the human body coming from the human genome project will enable more targeted and thus more individually focused medicine.

Preventive Medicine: The possibility of intervention against diseases even before the first symptoms will appear knowing predisposition to have a disease before symptoms appear.

Proteomics: The study of the full set of proteins encoded by a genome.

Public Health Informatics: Public Health Informatics is the application of information science and technology to public health practice and research. Friede A et. al. Annu Rev Public Health 1995.

Public Health Informatics: Applications of informatics principles and methods to build public health infrastructure, to “intelligent” support of public health agencies and practitioners, to support of research in health behavior and health literacy, and to syndromic surveillance.

Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practices, research and learning (Yasnoff)
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[R]
Receptor: Cellular protein that interactis with a hormone, a neuotransmitor or a drug to produce or modify a cellular response.
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[S]
Scanner: Device that reads microarrays of biological material. It detects the emissions of marker molecules present in the test. In general, they are fluorescent scanners that are capable of emitting a laser ray that excites the fluorophores present in the matrix inducing the liberation of photons in a different wavelength for their detection.

Systems Biology: Is the attempt to systematically study all the concurrent physiological processes in a cell or tissue by global measurement of differentially perturbed states (Frank Desiere, Biotechnology Annual Review, Vol 10)

Structural Genomics: The key structural genomics is to group proteins into families of similar structures based on their sequences. Then, based on the known structure of at least one protein in a family and using a computational technique called homology modeling, a good guess can be made about the shapes of other proteins in the family.
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[T]
Therapeutic target: a specific molecular site for drug interaction.

Translation Medicine: is the continuum – often known as “bench to bedside” – by which the biomedical community takes a focused point of view to move research discoveries from the laboratory into clinical practice to diagnose and treat patients (BioBankCentral)
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Last update Oct. 2011